By Nicholas Hagger
Within the New Philosophy of Universalism Nicholas Hagger defined a brand new philosophy that restates the order in the universe, the oneness of humankind and an enormous truth perceived as mild; and its functions in lots of disciplines, together with literature. during this paintings of literary Universalism, which includes ahead the considering in T.S. Eliot's 'Tradition and the person Talent' and different essays, Hagger lines the elemental subject of global literature, which has alternating metaphysical and secular facets: a quest for fact and immortality; and condemnation of social vices in terms of an implied advantage. given that classical instances those antithetical traditions have periodically been synthesised by way of Universalists. Hagger units out the realm Universalist literary culture: the writers who from precedent days have dependent their paintings at the basic Universalist subject matter. those are available within the Graeco-Roman global, the center a long time and Renaissance, within the Baroque Age, within the Neoclassical, Romantic Victorian and Modernist classes, and within the smooth time. He demonstrates that the Universalist sensibility is a synthesis of the metaphysical and secular traditions, and a mix of the Romantic encouraged mind's eye (the internal school during which Romantic poets approached the sunshine) and the Neoclassical imitative method of literature which emphasizes social order and percentage, a mixture present in the Baroque time of the Metaphysical poets, and in Victorian and Modernist literature. Universalists convey their cross-disciplinary sensibility in literary epic, as did Homer, Virgil, Dante and Milton, and in a couple of genres inside literature - and in historical past and philosophy. Universalist historians declare that each civilisation is nourished by way of a metaphysical imaginative and prescient that's expressed in its artwork, and while it declines secular, materialist writings lose touch with its imperative imaginative and prescient. As Universalist literary works restate the order in the universe, display metaphysical Being and fix the imaginative and prescient of truth, Hagger excitingly argues that the Universalist sensibility renews Western civilisation's healthiness. Literary Universalism is a move that revives the metaphysical outlook and combines it with the secular, materialistic method of literature that has predominated lately. it may well perform a revolution in idea and tradition and provide a brand new course in modern literature. This paintings conveys Universalism's impression on literature, and will be learn via all who've matters concerning the disease and decline of latest European/Western tradition.
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Extra info for A New Philosophy of Literature: The Fundamental Theme and Unity of World Literature
Her blue garments unloose small bats and owls’: I have fallen a long way. Clouds are flowering Blue and mystical over the face of the stars. Inside the church, the saints will be all blue, Floating on their delicate feet over the cold pews, Pietà 31 Their hands and faces stiff with holiness. The moon sees nothing of this. She is bald and wild. 7 There is no yew tree in van Gogh; nether is there an obvious moon, though there is a strange suffused light in the background. But there is certainly an absence of ‘sweetness’, a lack of connection – which still permits the person seeing the painting to experience pity, but of a very different kind, a pity for those who may be ‘bald and wild’, who may be beyond or outside the sanctions of traditional religion, those who may be ‘blue’ (as the female figure here is blue) but with a rather different, more shifting kind of ‘blueness’ than that which is traditionally inscribed on the figure of Mary.
And of course, one of those three characters central to the evolution of European culture in Yeats’s poem is Michelangelo. There is also Mary’s mouth to consider. Perhaps as with the Mona Lisa, one wonders by what amazing trick or foible of fate such an expression could be depicted: the expression of the mouth seems to be a compound of resignation and love. It does not smack of desperation or misery; it does not bespeak anger or any railing against the human lot. In Pietà 29 a way, it does not represent a discernible present at all, but rather a calm endurance which is born of long ages; the pity depicted here is not a pity unkindly focused on one event alone, on one personal bereavement as if to the exclusion of all other suffering; rather it seeks – almost selfconsciously, but not quite – to carry within itself a reservoir of human suffering and of the need to rise above that suffering and continue – into who knows what future.
In so profound abysm I throw all care Of others’ voices, that my adder’s sense To critic and to flatterer stopped are. 17 Here love and pity are conjoined, as we have seen them to be before, and treated as reservoirs of feeling which ‘fill’ the lack signified by the ‘impression’, the hole or gap caused by scandal; the scandal has, of course, a different origin from the love and the pity, and is presumably the effect of a general censure whereas love and pity, in this particular case, are within the ‘personal’ sphere, the ameliorative effect of a set of feelings which are purely interpersonal, between two people.
A New Philosophy of Literature: The Fundamental Theme and Unity of World Literature by Nicholas Hagger