By S. Y. Lee
The improvement of excessive strength accelerators started in 1911, whilst Rutherford stumbled on the atomic nuclei contained in the atom. for the reason that then, growth has been made within the following: (1) improvement of excessive voltage dc and rf accelerators, (2) fulfillment of excessive box magnets with first-class box caliber, (3) discovery of transverse and longitudinal beam focusing rules, (4) invention of excessive strength rf assets, (5) development of excessive vacuum expertise, (6) attainment of excessive brightness (polarized/unpolarized) electron/ion assets, (7) development of beam dynamics and beam manipulation schemes, resembling beam injection, accumulation, sluggish and speedy extraction, beam damping and beam cooling, instability suggestions, and so forth. The affects of the accelerator improvement are evidenced by means of the numerous ground-breaking discoveries in particle and nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, condensed subject physics, biomedical physics, medication, biology, and commercial processing. This e-book is meant for use as a graduate or senior undergraduate textbook in accelerator physics and technological know-how. it may be used as preparatory direction fabric for graduate accelerator physics scholars doing thesis learn. The textual content covers old accelerator improvement, transverse betatron movement, synchrotron movement, an advent to linear accelerators, and synchrotron radiation phenomena in low emittance electron garage earrings, creation to important subject matters reminiscent of the loose electron laser and the beam-beam interplay. consciousness is paid to derivation of the action-angle variables of the section area, as the transformation is necessary for knowing complex themes equivalent to the collective instability and nonlinear beam dynamics. every one part is through routines, that are designed to augment the idea that mentioned and to resolve a pragmatic accelerator layout challenge.
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Additional info for Accelerator Physics, Second Edition
Using Ampere's law, show that lH-dr = X/eZ = Xvp, where / = Xvp is the current per unit length, and df= dxx + dzz. (c) Similarly, the inductance per unit length is where the integral is carried out between two conductors. Show that there is a general relation: C L = /ie = 1/«|. The characteristic impedance of the transmission line is given by Rc = y/L/C = V/I, where C and L are the capacitance and the inductance per unit length. EXERCISE 31 1 (d) Show that the capacitance and the inductance per unit length of a coaxial cable with inner and outer radii r\ and r-i are 2ne T P 1 r2 n—/—v> L = 7rln~ • In(r2/ri) 2vr r\ Fill out the following table for some commonly used coaxial cables.
Livingston, Particle Accelerators: A Brief History, (Harvard, 1969). 12 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION reproduced below: One evening early in 1929 as I was glancing over current periodicals in the University library, I came across an article in a German electrical engineering journal by Wideroe on the multiple acceleration of positive ions. . This new idea immediately impressed me as the real answer which I had been looking for to the technical problem of accelerating positive ions, . . Again a little analysis of the problem showed that a uniform magnetic field had just the right properties - that the angular velocity of the ion circulating in the field would be independent of their energy so that they would circulate back and forth between suitable hollow electrodes in resonance with an oscillating electric field of a certain frequency which has come to be known as the cyclotron frequency.
V-th revolution. The radius r of the beam at the iV-th revolution becomes r =I (^) "V*. e. the orbiting radius increases with the square root of the revolution number N. The beam orbit separation in successive revolutions may becomes small, and thus the septum thickness becomes a challenging design problem. Two key difficulties associated with classical cyclotrons are the orbit stability and the relativistic mass effect. The orbit stability problem was partially solved in 1945 by D. Kerst and R.
Accelerator Physics, Second Edition by S. Y. Lee